This lesson covers the fundamentals of applied thermodynamics, focusing on entropy change of a control volume. It discusses problems related to refrigerant throttling, entropy generation, and the properties of refrigerant. The lesson also explains the throttling process, heat transfer, and the concept of steady state flow. It uses illustrative examples such as the throttling of refrigerant R134a from 900 kilopascals and 30° centigrade to 200 kilopascals, and the calculation of exit temperature and entropy generation during the process.

- The throttling process is an irreversible process where heat transfer occurs from the throttling device to the surroundings.
- The exit temperature of a refrigerant can be determined using the first law of thermodynamics.
- Entropy generation during a process can be calculated using the entropy balance equation.
- Steam tables are useful tools for retrieving values for calculations in thermodynamics.
- The state of a system can be determined using two properties, such as pressure and enthalpy.

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