This lesson covers the concept of non-Newtonian fluids, focusing on time-independent non-Newtonian fluids. It explains the characteristics of Newtonian fluids and how non-Newtonian fluids differ from them. The lesson further categorizes non-Newtonian fluids into three types: time-independent, time-dependent, and viscoelastic fluids. It delves into the details of time-independent non-Newtonian fluids, explaining how their apparent viscosity depends on the shear rate and not on the time of shearing. The lesson also discusses different models for shear-thinning fluids, viscoplastic fluids, and shear-thickening fluids. For instance, it explains the power-law model, Carreau viscosity model, and the Herschel-Bulkley fluid model. The lesson concludes with examples of materials that exhibit these fluid behaviors, such as meat extract, Carbopol solution, and beach sand.

Non-Newtonian fluids are categorized into time-independent, time-dependent, and viscoelastic fluids.

Time-independent non-Newtonian fluids have an apparent viscosity that depends on the shear rate and not on the time of shearing.

Shear-thinning fluids, a type of time-independent non-Newtonian fluids, have an apparent viscosity that decreases with increasing shear rate.

Viscoplastic fluids, another type of time-independent non-Newtonian fluids, do not deform until the applied stress crosses a certain characteristic yield stress.

Shear-thickening fluids, the last category of time-independent non-Newtonian fluids, have an apparent viscosity that increases with increasing shear rate.

Different mathematical models like the power-law model, Carreau viscosity model, and the Herschel-Bulkley fluid model are used to describe these fluid behaviors.

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