This lesson covers the development of a finite element model for elasto-plastic analysis in welding processes. It explains how to predict residual stress associated with welding processes by combining temperature and residual stress distribution. The lesson also delves into understanding plasticity models, yield criteria, hardening rules, and flow rules applicable in finite element-based stress analysis models. It further discusses the formulation of stress analysis models, prediction of residual stress, solution strategies, and the incorporation of phase transformation effects. The lesson uses the example of a three-dimensional body to illustrate the concepts.

- Bauschinger effect refers to the phenomenon where the yield stress in tension is not the same as the yield stress in compression.
- Strain hardening is the concept where the strength of a material increases as it is deformed beyond its yield point.
- An effective stress, which characterizes the state of applied stress, is compared with a known material property to determine if failure or yielding will occur.

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